Resources

Showing 1–10 of 56 results

    Chipping at the Landmarks of our Fathers

    ‘CHIPPING AT THE LANDMARKS OF OUR FATHERS’:  THE DECLINE OF THE TESTIMONY AGAINST HIRELING MINISTRY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    One of the distinctive features of Quakerism from the 1650s until the 1870s was its stance against any kind of pay for ministers, what Friends referred to as ‘hireling ministry’. Friends viewed a paid, authoritative pastoral ministry as contrary to Scripture, as tending toward preaching that pleased humans rather than God, as limiting the leadings of the Holy Spirit, and as generally corrupting. One of the criticisms of Orthodox by Hicksite Friends in the 1820s was that the Orthodox were compromising this testimony by associating with clergy of other denominations in reform and humanitarian causes, and both Orthodox and Hicksite Friends in the United States invoked this tradition to discourage Friends from joining abolition societies after 1830. Between 1860 and 1900, however, most Friends softened their stance. Hicksites, while eschewing paid ministry, came to view labeling other minister as ‘hirelings’ as being uncharitable and judgmental. American Gurneyites, swept up in a wave of revivalism in the 1870s, came to embrace pastoral ministry as the best way of caring for converts. In the British Isles, however, equally evangelical Friends of Gurneyite sympathies, for complex reasons, while also ceasing to label other clergy as ‘hirelings’, after some controversy and for complex reasons, rejected the pastoral system.

    Choose Life! Quakermetaphor and Modernity

    Author: Pink Dandelion, Betty Hagglund, Pam Lunn, and Edwina Newman

    ‘CHOOSE LIFE!’ QUAKERMETAPHOR AND MODERNITY

    In 2003, Grace Jantzen presented the George Richardson Lecture, the annual international lecture in Quaker studies, entitled ‘Choose Life! Early Quaker Women and Violence in Modernity’, which was published in Quaker Studies. It was part of her ongoing work on the preoccupation of modernity with death and violence. In the lecture she argued that Margaret Fell and most other early Quaker women encouraged a choice of life over a preoccupation with death, while most male Friends (as Quakers are also called) maintained the violent imagery of the Lamb’s War, the spiritual warfare that would usher in the kingdom. While both men and women developed what became the Quaker ‘peace testimony’ (the witness against war and outward violence), the language used by male and female Friends differed in its description of the inward spiritual life and its consequences and mission. Thus, Grace Jantzen argued that these women Friends were choosing a language counter to modernity, while the male apocalyptic was indeed counter-cultural but still within the frame of modernity. In this article, we take Grace Jantzen’s basic thesis, that a female ‘Choose Life!’ imagery may be set against a male ‘Lamb’s War’ metaphor, and apply it to four sets of Quaker data in other geographic and temporal locations, to explore the extent to which the arguments she sets out can usefully illuminate the nature of Quakerism. This four-fold approach highlights the complexity of the history of Quaker discourse, as well as the continually shifting cultural and social contexts in which Quakers necessarily found themselves embedded. It also brings to the fore how useful an analytical tool Grace Jantzen has given us and not only in situations where we come to agree with her conclusions.

    Comparing two surveys of Britain Yearly Meeting: 1990 and 2003

    • Subtitle:  Single Article from Quaker Studies 13/2
    • Author: Mark S. Cary, Pink Dandelion, and Rosie Rutherford
    • Publication Date:  01/03/2009
    • Desc: COMPARING TWO SURVEYS OF BRITAIN YEARLY MEETING: 1990 AND 2003

    Comparison of postal surveys of Friends in Britain Yearly Meeting in 1990 and 2003 showed modest differences for reported self-descriptions and beliefs. Quakers in 2003 appear to be less pacifist, somewhat less likely to describe God as ‘Spirit’, ‘Inward Light’, or ‘Love’ in absolute percentages, and less likely to describe Jesus as ‘containing that of God within as we all do’. Meeting for Worship was described less as ‘Seeking God’s will’, and more as ‘Listening’. The largest changes were an increase in reported levels of education and a 13-year increase in median age across the 13-year period. The change in sampling methodology between the two surveys did not appear substantially to affect the results.

    Chipping at the Landmarks of our Fathers

    Author: Thomas D. Hamm

    Desc: ‘CHIPPING AT THE LANDMARKS OF OUR FATHERS’:  THE DECLINE OF THE TESTIMONY AGAINST HIRELING MINISTRY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    One of the distinctive features of Quakerism from the 1650s until the 1870s was its stance against any kind of pay for ministers, what Friends referred to as ‘hireling ministry’. Friends viewed a paid, authoritative pastoral ministry as contrary to Scripture, as tending toward preaching that pleased humans rather than God, as limiting the leadings of the Holy Spirit, and as generally corrupting. One of the criticisms of Orthodox by Hicksite Friends in the 1820s was that the Orthodox were compromising this testimony by associating with clergy of other denominations in reform and humanitarian causes, and both Orthodox and Hicksite Friends in the United States invoked this tradition to discourage Friends from joining abolition societies after 1830. Between 1860 and 1900, however, most Friends softened their stance. Hicksites, while eschewing paid ministry, came to view labeling other minister as ‘hirelings’ as being uncharitable and judgmental. American Gurneyites, swept up in a wave of revivalism in the 1870s, came to embrace pastoral ministry as the best way of caring for converts. In the British Isles, however, equally evangelical Friends of Gurneyite sympathies, for complex reasons, while also ceasing to label other clergy as ‘hirelings’, after some controversy and for complex reasons, rejected the pastoral system.

    Choose Life! Quakermetaphor and Modernity

    Author: Pink Dandelion, Betty Hagglund, Pam Lunn, and Edwina Newman

    Desc: ‘CHOOSE LIFE!’ QUAKERMETAPHOR AND MODERNITY

    In 2003, Grace Jantzen presented the George Richardson Lecture, the annual international lecture in Quaker studies, entitled ‘Choose Life! Early Quaker Women and Violence in Modernity’, which was published in Quaker Studies. It was part of her ongoing work on the preoccupation of modernity with death and violence. In the lecture she argued that Margaret Fell and most other early Quaker women encouraged a choice of life over a preoccupation with death, while most male Friends (as Quakers are also called) maintained the violent imagery of the Lamb’s War, the spiritual warfare that would usher in the kingdom. While both men and women developed what became the Quaker ‘peace testimony’ (the witness against war and outward violence), the language used by male and female Friends differed in its description of the inward spiritual life and its consequences and mission. Thus, Grace Jantzen argued that these women Friends were choosing a language counter to modernity, while the male apocalyptic was indeed counter-cultural but still within the frame of modernity. In this article, we take Grace Jantzen’s basic thesis, that a female ‘Choose Life!’ imagery may be set against a male ‘Lamb’s War’ metaphor, and apply it to four sets of Quaker data in other geographic and temporal locations, to explore the extent to which the arguments she sets out can usefully illuminate the nature of Quakerism. This four-fold approach highlights the complexity of the history of Quaker discourse, as well as the continually shifting cultural and social contexts in which Quakers necessarily found themselves embedded. It also brings to the fore how useful an analytical tool Grace Jantzen has given us and not only in situations where we come to agree with her conclusions.

    Comparing two surveys of Britain Yearly Meeting: 1990 and 2003

    Author: Mark S. Cary, Pink Dandelion, and Rosie Rutherford

    Desc: COMPARING TWO SURVEYS OF BRITAIN YEARLY MEETING: 1990 AND 2003

    Comparison of postal surveys of Friends in Britain Yearly Meeting in 1990 and 2003 showed modest differences for reported self-descriptions and beliefs. Quakers in 2003 appear to be less pacifist, somewhat less likely to describe God as ‘Spirit’, ‘Inward Light’, or ‘Love’ in absolute percentages, and less likely to describe Jesus as ‘containing that of God within as we all do’. Meeting for Worship was described less as ‘Seeking God’s will’, and more as ‘Listening’. The largest changes were an increase in reported levels of education and a 13-year increase in median age across the 13-year period. The change in sampling methodology between the two surveys did not appear substantially to affect the results.

    Quagans: Fusing Quakerism with contemporary Paganism

    Author: Giselle Vincett

    Desc: QUAGANS: FUSING QUAKERISM WITH CONTEMPORARY PAGANISM

    Quaker Pagans are a relatively new phenomenon. Since no detailed description of the spirituality of Quaker Pagans has yet been done, to make a modest beginning this paper situates Quaker Pagans within the contexts of British Quakerism and contemporary paganism. It extends Pink Dandelion’s concept of a ‘behavioural creed’ (1996) by arguing that Quaker Pagans have a ‘practical belief’ system and a performative theology, and outlines how Quaker Pagans hold together their dual religious identity. Building upon Peter Collins’ (2008) work on Quaker narratives, the paper looks particularly at the way in which Quaker Pagans utilise story and metaphor. Finally, it draws parallels between the emphasis on experiential seeking in both Quaker and Pagan ritual.

    Quaker Studies March 2006

    Author: Ben Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: This edition features articles on agricultural husbandry among Quakers, Peter Briggins, Women's leadership, and much more.

    Quaker Studies March 2007

    Author: Ben Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: Articles include 'Learning to be Quaker: Spiritual formation and religious education among early Friends' by Martha Paxson Grundy; '"A civil and useful life": Quaker women, education and the development of professional identities 1800-1835' by Camilla Leach and 'Some Quaker attitudes to the printed word in the nineteenth century' by Edwina Newman.

    Quaker Studies March 2008

    Author: Ben Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: Articles include 'Slavery, the Slave Trade and the Churches' by James Walvin, 'Do we still Quake? An Ethnographic and Historial Enquiry' by Pam Lunn and 'Present and Prevented: A Survey of Membership Activity in Britain Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)' by Bill Chadkirk and Pink Dandelion plus the regular book reviews.