Quaker Studies

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    Chipping at the Landmarks of our Fathers

    ‘CHIPPING AT THE LANDMARKS OF OUR FATHERS’:  THE DECLINE OF THE TESTIMONY AGAINST HIRELING MINISTRY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    One of the distinctive features of Quakerism from the 1650s until the 1870s was its stance against any kind of pay for ministers, what Friends referred to as ‘hireling ministry’. Friends viewed a paid, authoritative pastoral ministry as contrary to Scripture, as tending toward preaching that pleased humans rather than God, as limiting the leadings of the Holy Spirit, and as generally corrupting. One of the criticisms of Orthodox by Hicksite Friends in the 1820s was that the Orthodox were compromising this testimony by associating with clergy of other denominations in reform and humanitarian causes, and both Orthodox and Hicksite Friends in the United States invoked this tradition to discourage Friends from joining abolition societies after 1830. Between 1860 and 1900, however, most Friends softened their stance. Hicksites, while eschewing paid ministry, came to view labeling other minister as ‘hirelings’ as being uncharitable and judgmental. American Gurneyites, swept up in a wave of revivalism in the 1870s, came to embrace pastoral ministry as the best way of caring for converts. In the British Isles, however, equally evangelical Friends of Gurneyite sympathies, for complex reasons, while also ceasing to label other clergy as ‘hirelings’, after some controversy and for complex reasons, rejected the pastoral system.

    Choose Life! Quakermetaphor and Modernity

    Author: Pink Dandelion, Betty Hagglund, Pam Lunn, and Edwina Newman

    ‘CHOOSE LIFE!’ QUAKERMETAPHOR AND MODERNITY

    In 2003, Grace Jantzen presented the George Richardson Lecture, the annual international lecture in Quaker studies, entitled ‘Choose Life! Early Quaker Women and Violence in Modernity’, which was published in Quaker Studies. It was part of her ongoing work on the preoccupation of modernity with death and violence. In the lecture she argued that Margaret Fell and most other early Quaker women encouraged a choice of life over a preoccupation with death, while most male Friends (as Quakers are also called) maintained the violent imagery of the Lamb’s War, the spiritual warfare that would usher in the kingdom. While both men and women developed what became the Quaker ‘peace testimony’ (the witness against war and outward violence), the language used by male and female Friends differed in its description of the inward spiritual life and its consequences and mission. Thus, Grace Jantzen argued that these women Friends were choosing a language counter to modernity, while the male apocalyptic was indeed counter-cultural but still within the frame of modernity. In this article, we take Grace Jantzen’s basic thesis, that a female ‘Choose Life!’ imagery may be set against a male ‘Lamb’s War’ metaphor, and apply it to four sets of Quaker data in other geographic and temporal locations, to explore the extent to which the arguments she sets out can usefully illuminate the nature of Quakerism. This four-fold approach highlights the complexity of the history of Quaker discourse, as well as the continually shifting cultural and social contexts in which Quakers necessarily found themselves embedded. It also brings to the fore how useful an analytical tool Grace Jantzen has given us and not only in situations where we come to agree with her conclusions.

    Comparing two surveys of Britain Yearly Meeting: 1990 and 2003

    • Subtitle:  Single Article from Quaker Studies 13/2
    • Author: Mark S. Cary, Pink Dandelion, and Rosie Rutherford
    • Publication Date:  01/03/2009
    • Desc: COMPARING TWO SURVEYS OF BRITAIN YEARLY MEETING: 1990 AND 2003

    Comparison of postal surveys of Friends in Britain Yearly Meeting in 1990 and 2003 showed modest differences for reported self-descriptions and beliefs. Quakers in 2003 appear to be less pacifist, somewhat less likely to describe God as ‘Spirit’, ‘Inward Light’, or ‘Love’ in absolute percentages, and less likely to describe Jesus as ‘containing that of God within as we all do’. Meeting for Worship was described less as ‘Seeking God’s will’, and more as ‘Listening’. The largest changes were an increase in reported levels of education and a 13-year increase in median age across the 13-year period. The change in sampling methodology between the two surveys did not appear substantially to affect the results.

    Chipping at the Landmarks of our Fathers

    Author: Thomas D. Hamm

    Desc: ‘CHIPPING AT THE LANDMARKS OF OUR FATHERS’:  THE DECLINE OF THE TESTIMONY AGAINST HIRELING MINISTRY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    One of the distinctive features of Quakerism from the 1650s until the 1870s was its stance against any kind of pay for ministers, what Friends referred to as ‘hireling ministry’. Friends viewed a paid, authoritative pastoral ministry as contrary to Scripture, as tending toward preaching that pleased humans rather than God, as limiting the leadings of the Holy Spirit, and as generally corrupting. One of the criticisms of Orthodox by Hicksite Friends in the 1820s was that the Orthodox were compromising this testimony by associating with clergy of other denominations in reform and humanitarian causes, and both Orthodox and Hicksite Friends in the United States invoked this tradition to discourage Friends from joining abolition societies after 1830. Between 1860 and 1900, however, most Friends softened their stance. Hicksites, while eschewing paid ministry, came to view labeling other minister as ‘hirelings’ as being uncharitable and judgmental. American Gurneyites, swept up in a wave of revivalism in the 1870s, came to embrace pastoral ministry as the best way of caring for converts. In the British Isles, however, equally evangelical Friends of Gurneyite sympathies, for complex reasons, while also ceasing to label other clergy as ‘hirelings’, after some controversy and for complex reasons, rejected the pastoral system.

    Choose Life! Quakermetaphor and Modernity

    Author: Pink Dandelion, Betty Hagglund, Pam Lunn, and Edwina Newman

    Desc: ‘CHOOSE LIFE!’ QUAKERMETAPHOR AND MODERNITY

    In 2003, Grace Jantzen presented the George Richardson Lecture, the annual international lecture in Quaker studies, entitled ‘Choose Life! Early Quaker Women and Violence in Modernity’, which was published in Quaker Studies. It was part of her ongoing work on the preoccupation of modernity with death and violence. In the lecture she argued that Margaret Fell and most other early Quaker women encouraged a choice of life over a preoccupation with death, while most male Friends (as Quakers are also called) maintained the violent imagery of the Lamb’s War, the spiritual warfare that would usher in the kingdom. While both men and women developed what became the Quaker ‘peace testimony’ (the witness against war and outward violence), the language used by male and female Friends differed in its description of the inward spiritual life and its consequences and mission. Thus, Grace Jantzen argued that these women Friends were choosing a language counter to modernity, while the male apocalyptic was indeed counter-cultural but still within the frame of modernity. In this article, we take Grace Jantzen’s basic thesis, that a female ‘Choose Life!’ imagery may be set against a male ‘Lamb’s War’ metaphor, and apply it to four sets of Quaker data in other geographic and temporal locations, to explore the extent to which the arguments she sets out can usefully illuminate the nature of Quakerism. This four-fold approach highlights the complexity of the history of Quaker discourse, as well as the continually shifting cultural and social contexts in which Quakers necessarily found themselves embedded. It also brings to the fore how useful an analytical tool Grace Jantzen has given us and not only in situations where we come to agree with her conclusions.

    Comparing two surveys of Britain Yearly Meeting: 1990 and 2003

    Author: Mark S. Cary, Pink Dandelion, and Rosie Rutherford

    Desc: COMPARING TWO SURVEYS OF BRITAIN YEARLY MEETING: 1990 AND 2003

    Comparison of postal surveys of Friends in Britain Yearly Meeting in 1990 and 2003 showed modest differences for reported self-descriptions and beliefs. Quakers in 2003 appear to be less pacifist, somewhat less likely to describe God as ‘Spirit’, ‘Inward Light’, or ‘Love’ in absolute percentages, and less likely to describe Jesus as ‘containing that of God within as we all do’. Meeting for Worship was described less as ‘Seeking God’s will’, and more as ‘Listening’. The largest changes were an increase in reported levels of education and a 13-year increase in median age across the 13-year period. The change in sampling methodology between the two surveys did not appear substantially to affect the results.

    Quagans: Fusing Quakerism with contemporary Paganism

    Author: Giselle Vincett

    Desc: QUAGANS: FUSING QUAKERISM WITH CONTEMPORARY PAGANISM

    Quaker Pagans are a relatively new phenomenon. Since no detailed description of the spirituality of Quaker Pagans has yet been done, to make a modest beginning this paper situates Quaker Pagans within the contexts of British Quakerism and contemporary paganism. It extends Pink Dandelion’s concept of a ‘behavioural creed’ (1996) by arguing that Quaker Pagans have a ‘practical belief’ system and a performative theology, and outlines how Quaker Pagans hold together their dual religious identity. Building upon Peter Collins’ (2008) work on Quaker narratives, the paper looks particularly at the way in which Quaker Pagans utilise story and metaphor. Finally, it draws parallels between the emphasis on experiential seeking in both Quaker and Pagan ritual.

    Quaker Studies March 2006

    Author: Ben Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: This edition features articles on agricultural husbandry among Quakers, Peter Briggins, Women's leadership, and much more.

    Quaker Studies March 2007

    Author: Ben Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: Articles include 'Learning to be Quaker: Spiritual formation and religious education among early Friends' by Martha Paxson Grundy; '"A civil and useful life": Quaker women, education and the development of professional identities 1800-1835' by Camilla Leach and 'Some Quaker attitudes to the printed word in the nineteenth century' by Edwina Newman.

    Quaker Studies March 2008

    Author: Ben Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: Articles include 'Slavery, the Slave Trade and the Churches' by James Walvin, 'Do we still Quake? An Ethnographic and Historial Enquiry' by Pam Lunn and 'Present and Prevented: A Survey of Membership Activity in Britain Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)' by Bill Chadkirk and Pink Dandelion plus the regular book reviews.

    Quaker Studies March 2009

    Author: ‘Ben’ Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: This issue begins with a George Richardson Lecture and continues with an article consequent to another. Thomas Hamm enthralled the ninety participants at the joint Quaker Historians and Archivists/QSRA Conference in June 2008 with his lecture on the shift in perceptions which allowed the advent of Quaker pastors in a group historically opposed to a hireling ministry. Thomas Hamm’s work is always thorough and like his previous contribution to Quaker Studies (‘A Protest Against Protestantism—Hicksite Friends and the Bible in the Nineteenth Century’ in 6/2), we have another tantalising glimpse of his larger work on Hicksite Quakers to accompany his excellent Transformation of American Quakerism (University of Indiana Press, 1988). We wait in eager anticipation.

    In 9/2, we published Grace Jantzen’s 2003 George Richardson Lecture, ‘Choose Life—Early Quaker Women and Violence in Modernity’. As the article printed here states:

    It was part of her ongoing work on the preoccupation of modernity with death and violence. In the lecture she argued that Margaret Fell and most other early Quaker women encouraged a choice of life over a preoccupation with death, while most male Friends (as Quakers are also called) maintained the violent imagery of the Lamb’s War, the spiritual warfare that would usher in the kingdom. While both men and women developed what became the Quaker ‘peace testimony’ (the witness against war and outward violence), the language used by male and female Friends differed in its description of the inward spiritual life and its consequences and mission. Thus, Grace argued that these women Friends were choosing a language counter to modernity, while the male apocalyptic was indeed counter-cultural but still within the frame of modernity. The Quaker women’s emphasis on ‘Life’ was at odds with modernity’s emphasis on death and violence. It led to an alternative mode within the Quaker communities in terms of gender relations and the spiritual equality of the sexes, which extended to the whole range of social testimony and witness.

    Grace Jantzen died in 2006 and as part of conference and forthcoming book to commemorate her life and work, four of us within the Centre for Postgraduate Quaker Studies (Pink Dandelion, Betty Hagglund, Pam Lunn, Edwina Newman) jointly authored a collaborative and interdisciplinary piece (no doubt she would have encouraged us to work in this way), exploring this challenging thesis further in other parts of British Quaker history. Grace Jantzen gave enormously to us as colleagues and also to the Centre in her Lecture, a workshop at a Research Summer School and in subsequent teaching at Woodbrooke. She had planned to join the team here and we feel her loss deeply. We are grateful to Elaine Graham, 134 QUAKER STUDIES editing the volume arising out of the conference, for her permission to reprint the article here where in some ways it also obviously belongs.

    Following James Walvin’s 2007 George Richardson Lecture, reprinted in the last volume, Elizabeth O’Donnell adds to her published work on nineteenthcentury north-east England Quakerism with an article on the Free Produce movement, the Victorian equivalent of fair-trade in its attempts to sell goods that had not been produced with the help of slave labour. Anna Kett at Brighton is now undertaking doctoral work on the wider picture of the Free Produce movement and we can look forward to her findings.

    In 2007, the QSRA conference was entitled ‘The Quaker Condition’ and the twelve papers presented have now appeared as a volume of the same name, published by Cambridge Scholars Publishing. The book looks sociologically at the condition of present-day British Quakerism. As such, it represents an in-depth study of a liberal faith group, when liberal religion is the focus of much scholarly debate at present, particularly with reference to the secularisation thesis. The study of British Quakerism is especially fascinating in this regard, given how the group can be described almost as hyper- or ultra-liberal, prefiguring many of the developments which may overtake currently more conservative groups. The book is divided into four main sections of three chapters each: Identity; Belief and Values; Meeting Culture; and Diverse Forms, and we are pleased that over the next three issues, we can reprint some of those chapters.

    In this issue, we carry papers by Peter Collins on identity and Giselle Vincett on Quaker pagans or ‘Quagans’ from the first and fourth sections respectively. Peter Collins argues in his ‘The Problem of Quaker identity’ that the issue of Quaker identity is problematic in two senses. On the one hand it would appear to be a problem, a practical problem one might say, for Quakers themselves. Indeed, Quakers seem often to see the problem as a solution or in any case as a cause for celebration. It is a celebration with distinctly postmodern overtones in that a creedless Quakerism allows considerable scope for variation in belief and practice. With its explicit avowal of the importance of individuality, Quakerism would seem to be a religion for today. Quaker identity is, furthermore, sociologically problematic. Given that the Religious Society of Friends has sustained its identity for 350 years, how has this been possible? How can a voluntary organisation, like the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), sustain a coherent identity without charter or creed—without an overt, unifying ideology? One possible answer is the existence of a behavioural creed. In other words, Quakers are Quakers by virtue of doing rather than believing the same thing. Although an interesting hypothesis, it does not entirely convince. Empirical research indicates that although Quakers (say during Meeting for Worship) appear to be doing the same thing, they are not, and are often aware that this is the case. The central problem remains, then: how is Quaker identity sustained? Peter Collins’ response to this question draws on three concepts: narrative, plaining, and habitus.

    Giselle Vincett in ‘Quagans in Contemporary British Quakerism’ draws upon semi-structured interviews with four Quaker women, all of whom also identify as pagan. All the women were long-term Quakers (though none were raised in the EDITORIAL 135 tradition) and all emphasised that their paganism was in no way a rejection of Quakerism. Giselle Vincett introduces the term Quagan to refer to individuals who fuse Quakerism with neo-paganism. For these individuals Quakerism is not necessarily Christian, but is based upon ‘how you are, rather than what you believe’. Quakerism for these women becomes a way of life, a spirituality rooted in praxis, where praxis includes: ritual (both Quaker and pagan); spiritual experience; and forms of relating to others and the world (social and eco-justice actions, pastoral work, writing). Quakerism is supplemented with images, ritual and new forms of the divine. As one participant related, ‘…now I know ways to work with symbols, ritual, even micro-ritual… I have a bigger range than I did when I worked solely with the Friends’. This article examines how and where a pagan worldview may merge with Quaker praxis, and where the two spiritualities merge with difficulty.

    Mark Cary, Pink Dandelion, and Rosie Rutherford examine the 1990 and 2003 surveys of British Quakerism conducted by Dandelion and Rutherford respectively. The authors argue that while the sampling methods were far more rigorous in the latter survey and it might be argued that Pink Dandelion’s can only serve as a pilot for Rosie Rutherford’s, the correspondence between the data collected is more than coincidental and indicates the possibility of valid comparability. The piece reports the key differences between the two surveys.

    The issue ends with a selection of book reviews, edited by Betty Hagglund.

    ‘Ben’ Pink Dandelion

    Quaker Studies March 2011

    Author: ‘Ben’ Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: Welcome to this second half of volume 15 of Quaker Studies.

    This issue begins with the 2010 George Richardson Lecture, presented by Thomas C. Kennedy from the University of Arkansas in July 2010. Best known to date in Quaker studies circles for his monumental study British Quakerism 1860–1920: The Transformation of a Religious Community (Oxford University Press, 2001), Tom spoke to those gathered at Woodbrooke for the QSRA conference on his more recently published work, A History of Southland College: The Society of Friends and Black Education in Arkansas (University of Arkansas Press, 2009).

    Southland College was founded by two Indiana Friends, Alida and Calvin Clark, who, in the aftermath of the American Civil War, were concerned for the education of orphaned and other black children for whom there were no educational opportunities. Donated land and a building, the Clarks, who had planned only a brief stay in the south, found there was no turning back—the Clarks and their successors ran what later became Southland College for sixty years. The story of Southland College is a moving part of Quaker history and Thomas Kennedy brought a great sense of compassion as well as scholarly rigour to his presentation. Ultimately, though personality problems and the continuing hostility of the area combined with financial difficulties brought an end to the Southland concern, Thomas Kennedy’s work ensures its history is now preserved.

    The following day Tom spoke to the participants at the Quaker Research Summer School about his two major pieces of historical research. The Southland work actually began before the work on British Quakerism, but circumstance meant the latter topic became a book first. His patient and dedicated approach over three decades working on the two projects was very inspiring for those of us who feel the pressure to publish. Two other aspects of Tom’s work also became clear. One was the ‘accidents’ that often lead to such work. Tom describes the accident of even finding out about Southland, and then a second accident of discovering its archive in an attic at Quaker Hill in Indiana. With the work on British Quakerism, Tom was told by Roger Wilson that he (Roger) had set everything up and Tom was the person to do the work, and that it needed to be done whilst key characters were still alive. From accident, we move quickly to responsibility. Once the archive had been discovered and later deposited in Arkansas, and Roger Wilson had set up the interviews, Tom too found there was no turning back. Second, we can see in Tom’s work and his current research into the Conservative Party in what is now Northern Ireland, in spite of having retired, a true model of research as vocation. We were privileged to hear him speak and I am very pleased to reprint his Lecture here.

    The second piece in this issue, by Amanda Lawrence, is a detailed comparison of the attitudes to mental health held by George Fox, a leader of early Quakerism who was attributed with many miraculous healings, and William Tuke, founder of ‘The Retreat’ mental hospital in York in the early nineteenth century. This work is essentially an MPhil thesis, and, as we did with work by Nikki Coffey Tousley in 2004, we are reprinting it here in its entirety because of its value to Quaker studies scholarship and because of its quality. Work of this length, often too long to be considered by other journals and yet not of book length, can all too often end up laying under-read on the shelves of academic libraries. With this in mind, we are pleased to be able to bring it to a much wider readership. Amanda argues compellingly that there was a considerable degree of continuity across the centuries between the two Quakers. The study also pays important attention to the ongoing research agenda to which these findings give rise.

    Robynne Rogers Healey’s book From Quaker to Upper Canadian: Faith and Community among Yonge Street Friends, 1801–1850 (McGill-Queen’s Press) was published in 2006 to critical acclaim. This work detailed the dual motivations of this British North American Quaker community of protecting itself from the corruptions of the world and participation within it. In the article published here, Robynne uses the archive of the Mullet family and the correspondence between branches migrating to Upper Canada and from Britain to the USA to identify the differing Quaker identities of the three locales, British, American, and British North American. Robynne suggests that the idea of the transatlantic Quaker community was at least breaking down in the nineteenth century and that it is more accurate to talk of the Religious Societies of Friends.

    Presented as a paper at the 2010 British Sociological association Sociology of Religion Conference in Edinburgh, Hilary Pinder’s research note outlines the tensions facing religious idealism within a global business context. Charting some of the founding insights of Ernest Bader and their constancy and change over five centuries within Scott Bader, Hilary identifies the key areas of tension in terms of the governance of a multinational Quaker business. Hilary explores how far faithbased ideals can survive in a secular and secularising context and raises questions for future research.

    The issue ends with a short selection of book reviews. Thanks to Betty Hagglund for overseeing this section and for the new energy of Helen Smith in helping for the first time as Assistant Reviews Editor.

    ‘Ben’ Pink Dandelion

    Quaker Studies October 2005

    Author: Ben Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: Quaker Studies 10.1 - Contents

    Editorial

    An Absent Presence: Quaker Narratives of Journeys to America and

    Barbados, 1671-81

    Hilary Hinds

    Preaching for Hire: Public Issues and Private Concerns in a Skirmish of the Lamb's War

    Jonathan Harlow

    The Persecution of 'an Innocent People' in Seventeenth-century England

    Raymond Ayoub

    Reluctant Absolutist: Malcolm Sparkes' Conscientious Objections to

    World War I

    Bert den Boggende

    Broadcasting Truth to Power: The American Friends Service Committee and the Early Southern Civil Rights Movement

    Brian Ward

    Book Reviews

    Quaker Studies September 2006

    Author: Ben Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: The issue begins with an extended version of the 1998 George Richardson Lecture, given by Hans Erik Aarek from Stavanger University, Norway. It also contains a fascinating article by Stephen Angell. Using the wonderful Digital Quaker Collection (DQC) database set up at Earlham, available to everyone via the web, he has been able to analyse frequency of use of particular verses of Scripture, Colossians in particular in this case, and then analyses the theological approach taken by different Quaker authors. There are also fascinating pieces by Vail Palmer, Glen Reynolds, Adrian Bailey and John Bryson, among others.

    Quaker Studies September 2007

    Author: Ben Pink Dandelion (Ed)

    Desc: Articles include 'Crossing Borders and Negotiating Boundaries: The Seventeenth-century European Missions and Persecution' by Sunne Juterczenka, 'The Journal of George Fox: A Technology of Presence' by Hilary Hunds and Alison Findlay and 'Two Kinds of Quakers: A Latent Class Analysis' by Mark S. Cary and Anita L. Weber to name a few plus the regular Book Reviews

    Quaker Studies September 2008

    Author: 'Ben' Pink Dandelion

    Desc: This is an unusual issue of Quaker Studies. It is dominated by one article three or four times the length of our normal submissions. One other article sits alongside two research notes and a selection of book reviews.

    The length of the issue is the now-standard maximum of 128 pages. The lengthy study, by Nikki Coffey Tousley, is actually a reprint of her M.Phil thesis, submitted for that award at the University of Birmingham some five years ago. For those who have read it, it is a treasure of analysis. Its acute analysis of the changes between first- and second-generation convincement narratives add detail and nuance to the generalised and received wisdom of shifts which took place between first and second-generation convincement narratives add detail and nuance to the generalised and received wisdom of shifts which took place between the 1650s and 1670s. Rosemary Moore's follow-up research into the 1670s after her painstaking account of the 1650s is in a similar vein but is still in progress. This is a very significant piece of research beautifully crafted and yet has been largely inaccessible, hence the decision to publish it here.

    Two research notes all cover very different territory. Yasuharu Nakano contextualises the theology of Elizabeth Bathurst, one of the few systematic theologians Quakerism has produced, delineating her soteriology from that of her contemporary Robert Barclay. He also catalogues 29 errors in scriptural citations across seven editions of her work including the recent republication of some of it in Hidden in Plain Sight. Yasuharu Nakano attempts to explain some of these errors and their persistence but also calls us, as scholars, to greater care and attention in checking our transcriptions.

    Simon Best raises a methodological issue for those studying sub-cultures or alternative forms that reside within larger populations, in this case adolescent Quakers within Britain Yearly Meeting. He shows how different narratives of inclusivity and difference run differently through the different constituencies and that these can be hidden by privileging only one or some accounts.

    The issue ends as usual with a selection of book reviews, edited with usual care by Betty Hagglund. My continuing thanks to her.

    'Ben' Pink Danelion